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Porsche 911



Generation 2



Model year 1974 saw three significant changes. First, the engine size was increased to 2687 cc giving an increase in torque. Second, was the introduction of impact bumpers to conform with low-speed protection requirements of US law, these bumpers being so successfully integrated into the design that they remained unchanged for 15 years. Thirdly, the use of K-Jetronic CIS Bosch fuel injection in two of the three models in the line up— the 911 and 911S models, retaining the narrow rear arches of the old 2.4, now had a detuned version of the RS engine producing 150 PS (110 kW; 150 hp) and 175 PS (129 kW; 173 hp), respectively. The Carrera 2.7 retained the same 210 bhp MFI engine, suspension, brakes etc. as the 1973 Carrera RS. It weighed in at 1075 kg, the same as the RS Touring. The US market Carrera only had the 165 bhp CIS engine owing to emission regulations. The 930 Turbo was introduced in 1975 (see below). The Carrera 3.0 was introduced in 1976 with what was essentially the Turbo's 2994 cc engine minus the turbocharger, and with K-Jetronic CIS although now developing 200 PS (150 kW; 200 hp).

Porsche 911


Also produced in the 1976 model year for the U.S. market, was the 912E, a 4-cylinder version of the 911 like the 912 that had last been produced in 1969. It used the I-series chassis and the Volkswagen 2.0 engine from the Porsche 914. In all, 2099 units were produced. In 1976 the front-engine Porsche 924 took this car's place for the 1977 model year and beyond.

Porsche 911 Carrera
© Michel Muller


In 1978, Porsche introduced the new version of the 911, called the '911SC'. Porsche reintroduced the SC designation for the first time since the 356SC (as distinguished from the race engined 356 Carrera). There was no Carrera version of the 911SC. It featured a 3.0-liter engine with Bosch K-Jetronic fuel injection and a 5-speed 915 transmission. Porsche broke away from using magnesium crankcases like in the late 2.0-, 2.2-, 2.4- and 2.7-liter engines. This was the start of what are considered by collectors to be the most reliable 911s. In 1981, a Cabriolet concept car was introduced at the Frankfurt Motor Show. Not only was the car a true convertible, but it also featured four-wheel drive, although this was dropped in the production version. The first 911 Cabriolet debuted in late 1982, as a 1983 model. This was Porsche’s first cabriolet since the 356 of the mid-1960s. It proved very popular with 4,214 sold in its introductory year, despite its premium price relative to the open-top targa. Cabriolet versions of the 911 have been offered ever since.

Porsche 911 Carrera


It was during this time, that Porsche AG decided the long-term fate of the 911. In 1979 Porsche had made plans to replace the 911 with their new 928. Sales of the 911 remained so strong however, that Porsche revised its strategy and decided to inject new life into the 911 editions. 911 SC sales totaled 58,914 cars.

Porsche 911 SC
© Michel Muller


Peter W. Schutz (CEO Porsche AG 1981-1987) wrote: "The decision to keep the 911 in the product line occurred one afternoon in the office of Dr. Helmuth Bott de:Helmuth Bott, the Porsche operating board member responsible for all engineering and development. I noticed a chart on the wall of Professor Bott’s office. It depicted the ongoing development schedules for the three primary Porsche product lines: 944, 928 and 911. Two of them stretched far into the future, but the 911 program stopped at the end of 1981. I remember rising from my chair, walking over to the chart, taking a black marker pen, and extending the 911 program bar clean off the chart. I am sure I heard a silent cheer from Professor Bott, and I knew I had done the right thing. The Porsche 911, the company icon, had been saved, and I believe the company was saved with it."

Porsche 911 SC
© Michel Muller


With the 911’s future ensured, 1984 saw the launch of a replacement for the successful SC series. It was the model year 1984 911 3.2 Carrera, reviving the Carrera name for the first time since 1975. The 911 3.2 Carrera was the last iteration in the original 911 series, with all subsequent models featuring new body styling with new brake, electronic and suspension technologies.

Porsche 911 SC
© Michel Muller


A new higher-displacement motor, a 3.2-liter horizontally opposed flat 6-cylinder, was utilized. At the time Porsche claimed it was 80% new. The new swept volume of 3164 cc was achieved using the 95 mm (3.7 in) bore (from the previous SC model) combined with the 1978 Turbo 3.3 crankshaft's 74.4 mm (2.9 in) stroke. In addition, higher domed pistons increased the compression ratio from 9.8 to 10.3:1 (although only 9.5:1 for the US market). New inlet manifold and exhaust systems were fitted. The 915 transmission was carried over from the SC series for the first three model years. In 1987, the Carrera got a new five-speed gearbox sourced from Getrag, model number G50 with proven Borg-Warner synchronizers. This slightly heavier version also featured a hydraulically operated clutch.

Porsche 911 Turbo
© Michel Muller


With the new engine, power was increased to 207 bhp (154 kW; 210 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for North American-delivered cars and to 231 bhp (172 kW; 234 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for most other markets. This version of the 911 accelerated 0–60 mph (100 km/h) in 5.4 seconds and had a top speed of 150 mph (242 km/h) as measured by Autocar. Factory times were more modest: 0-60 mph time of 6.3 seconds for the US version and 6.1 seconds for cars outside the American market.

Porsche 911 Turbo
© Michel Muller


The brake discs were increased in size to aid in more effective heat dissipation and improved oil-fed chain tensioners were fitted to the engine. To improve oil cooling, a finned cooler replaced the serpentine lines in the front passenger fender well. This was further improved in 1987, with the addition of a thermostatically controlled fan.

Porsche 911 Speedster


Driving refinement and motor reliability were improved with an upgrade of the fuel and ignition control components to an L-Jetronic with Bosch Motronics 2 DME (Digital Motor Electronics system). An improvement in fuel-efficiency was due to the DME providing a petrol cut-off on the overrun. Changes in the fuel map and chip programming from October 1986 further improved the power to 217 bhp (162 kW; 220 PS) (@ 5900 rpm) for North American delivered cars as well as for other markets requesting low emissions, like Germany. Custom-mapped chips remain a popular upgrade. The fuel relay that is mounted externally on the DME is known to be a weak point of the system.

Porsche 911 Speedster
© Michel Muller


Three basic models were available throughout the Carrera years – coupe, targa and cabriolet. When launched in 1984 in the United States, the prices of the 911 Carrera lineup were $31,950 for the coupe, $33,450 for the targa and $36,450 for the cabriolet. Almost indistinguishable from the SC, external clues are the front fog lights, which were integrated into the front valance in the Carrera. Very modest cosmetic changes were made throughout the lifespan of the Carrera, with a redesigned dash featuring larger air conditioning vents appearing in 1986.

Porsche 911 Speedster


In 1984, Porsche also introduced the M491 option. Officially called the Supersport in the UK, it was commonly known as the "Turbo-look". It was a style that resembled the Porsche 930 Turbo with wide wheel arches and the distinctive "tea tray” tail. It featured the stiffer turbo suspension and the superior turbo braking system as well as the wider turbo wheels. Sales of the Supersport were particularly strong for its first two years in the United States because the desirable 930 was not available.

Porsche 911 cabriolet
© Michel Muller


The 911 Carrera Club Sport (CS) (option M637), 340 of which were produced worldwide from August 1987 to September 1989, is a reduced weight version of the standard Carrera that, with engine and suspension modifications, was purpose built for club racing. The CS had a blueprinted engine with hollow intake valves and a higher rev limit, deletion of: all power options, sunroof (except one example), air conditioning (except two examples), radio, rear seat, undercoating, sound insulation, rear wiper, door pocket lids, fog lamps, front hood locking mechanism, engine and luggage compartment lights, lockable wheel nuts and even the rear lid "Carrera" logo, all in order to save an estimated 70 kg (155 lb) in weight. With the exception of CSs delivered to the UK, all are identifiable by the "CS Club Sport" decal on the left front fender and came in a variety of colors, some special ordered. Some U.S. CS's did not have the decal installed by the dealer; however, all CS's have a "SP" stamp on the crankcase and cylinder head. The UK CS's were all "Grand Prix White" with a red "Carrera CS" decal on each side of the car and red wheels. Although the CS was well received by the club racers, because it cost more than the stock 911 but had fewer "creature comforts", it was not well received by the public in general. Consequently, according to Porsche Club of America and Porsche Club Great Britain CS Registers, only 21 are documented as delivered to the U.S. in 1988 with 7 in 1989, one to Canada in 1988 and 53 to the United Kingdom from 1987 to 1989.

Porsche 911 cabriolet


The 911 Speedster (option M503), a low-roof version of the Cabriolet which was evocative of the Porsche 356 Speedster of the 1950s, was produced in limited numbers (2,104) starting in January 1989 until July 1989 as both a narrow body car and a Turbo-look. The narrow version was produced only 171 times. The Speedster started as a design under Helmuth Bott in 1983 but was not manufactured until six years later. It was a two-seat convertible that featured a low swept windshield.

Porsche 911 Carrera 4x4


Total production of the 911 3.2 Carrera series was 76,473 cars (35,670 coupé, 19,987 cabrio, 18,468 targa).

----- Porsche Turbo 930

Porsche began experimenting with turbocharging technology on their race cars during the late 1960s, and in 1972 began development on a turbocharged version of the 911. Porsche originally needed to produce the car in order to comply with homologation regulations and had intended on marketing it as a street legal race vehicle like the 1973 Carrera 2.7 RS. When the homologation rules changed, Porsche continued to develop the car anyway, deciding to make it a fully equipped variant of the 911 that would top the model range and give Porsche a more direct competitor to vehicles from Ferrari and Lamborghini, which were more expensive and more exclusive than the standard 911. Although Porsche no longer needed the car to meet homologation requirements, it proved a viable platform for racing vehicles, and became the basis for the 934 and 935 race cars. Ferdinand "Ferry" Porsche, who was running the company at the time, handed development of the vehicle over to Ernst Fuhrmann, who adapted the turbo-technology originally developed for the 917/30 CAN-AM car to the 3.0 litre flat-six from the Carrera RS 3.0, creating what Porsche internally dubbed as 930. Total output from the engine was 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp), much more than the standard Carrera. In order to ensure that the platform could make the most of the higher power output, a revised suspension, larger brakes and stronger gearbox became part of the package, although some consumers were unhappy with Porsche's use of a 4-speed whilst a 5-speed manual was available in the "lesser" Carrera. A "Whale-Tail" rear spoiler was installed to help vent more air to the engine and help create more downforce at the rear of the vehicle, and wider rear wheels with upgraded tires combined with flared wheelarches were added to increase the 911's width and grip, making it more stable.

Porsche 911 Carrera rsr
© Michel Muller


Porsche badged the vehicle simply as "Turbo" (although early U.S. units were badged as "Turbo Carrera") and debuted it at the Paris Auto Show in October 1974 before putting it on sale in the spring of 1975; export to the United States began in 1976.

The 930 proved very fast but also very demanding. The 911 was prone to oversteer because of its rear engine layout and short wheelbase; combining those traits with the power of the turbocharged motor, which exhibited significant turbo-lag, meant driving the car required more skill to drive at the edge of its (higher) level of performance. Even though the rear engine layout provided superior traction, sudden bursts of power to the rear wheels in mid-corner could break the tires loose, causing the car to literally spin out of control. This effect was amplified if an inexperienced driver would instinctively lift the throttle in reaction. The vehicle needed to be kept at high revs during spirited driving to minimise the turbo lag. Skilled drivers quickly learned how to drive the 930 properly, and with that knowledge came the ability to drive the car above and beyond the levels of most other sports cars. Nevertheless, some fatal accidents caused by drivers outside their capabilities and traffic regulations resulted in product liability law suits brought against Porsche in the United States, where Ralph Nader had made his name criticizing the rear engine-rear wheel drive layout of the Chevrolet Corvair.

Porsche 911 SC Targa
© Michel Muller


Porsche made its first and most significant upgrades to the 930 for 1978, enlarging the engine to 3.3 litres and adding an air-to-air intercooler. By cooling the pressurized air charge, the intercooler helped increase power output to 300 hp (DIN); the rear 'whale tail' spoiler was re-profiled and raised slightly to make room for the intercooler. Porsche also upgraded the brakes to units similar to those used on the 917 racecar.

Porsche 911 SC Targa


Changing emissions regulations in Japan and the U.S. forced Porsche to withdraw the 930 from those markets in 1980. It remained, however, available in Canada. Believing the 928 would eventually replace the 911, Fuhrmann cut-back spending on the model, and it was not until Fuhrmann's resignation the company finally committed the financing to re-regulate the car.

Porsche 911 SC Targa
© Michel Muller


The 930 remained available in Europe, and for 1983 a 330 PS (243 kW; 325 hp) performance option became available on a build-to-order basis from Porsche. With the add-on came a 4-pipe exhaust system and an additional oil-cooler requiring a remodelled front spoiler and units bearing the add-on often featured additional ventilation holes in the rear fenders and modified rockers.

Porsche 911 SC Targa
© Michel Muller


Porsche offered a "Flachbau" ("slantnose") 930 under the "Sonderwunschprogramm" (special order program) beginning in 1981, an otherwise normal 930 with a 935-style slantnose instead of the normal 911 front end. Each Flachbau unit was handcrafted by remodeling the front fenders. So few were built that the slantnose units often commanded a high premium over sticker, adding to the fact that they required a premium of up to 60 per cent (highly indivdualized cars even more) over the standard price. Several sources claim the factory built 948 units. The Flachbau units delivered in Europe usually featured the 330 hp (246 kW) performance kit.

Porsche 911 Carrera Targa
© Michel Muller


928 sales had risen slightly by the 1985 model year, but there was still some question as to if it were truly capable of superseding the 911 as the company's premier model, and for 1986 Porsche re-introduced the 930 to the Japanese and U.S. markets, now featuring an emission-controlled engine producing 282 PS (207 kW; 278 hp). At the same time Porsche introduced the Targa and Cabriolet variants, both of which proved popular.

Porsche 911 Flachbau


Porsche discontinued the 930 after model year 1989 when its underlying "G-Series" platform was being replaced by the 964. '89 models were the first and last versions of the 930 to feature the G50 transmission, a 5-speed manual transmission. A turbo version of the 964 officially succeeded the 930 in 1991 with a modified version of the same 3.3 litre flat-6 engine and a 5-speed transmission.

Porsche 911 Flachbau


Leave a comment about the Porsche 911 (1977-) :





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